A forklift is a device that has two forks in front of it and it is used to move equipment up and down as well as to move it.

Forklift history:

The current and modern form of modern forklifts has gradually evolved from the mid-nineteenth to the twentieth century.

In 1906, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company used the first electric forklift to carry passengers’ load by train.

In 1917, Clark began using tractors and forklifts in the United States.

In 1919, Tow Motor Company and Yale and in 1920, Towne Manufacturing entered the American forklift market.

During the 1920s and 1930s, the use of forklifts increased dramatically.

During and after World War II, more efficient methods were developed for storage in large warehouses, and warehouses required forklifts with high maneuverability and more capacity, and this need led to the introduction of new forklift models in the market.

In 1956, Toyota introduced its first LA Series forklift in Japan, and in 1967, Toyota’s first forklift was sold in the United States.

A forklift is a modern industrial machine that is used with the help of forks with different shapes and vertical masts to lift, move and store all kinds of cargo such as barrels, pipes, sheets, boxes, pallets, etc.

Forklifts are designed for both indoor and outdoor work. Forklifts are usually designed and built-in capacities of less than one ton to more than 48 tons. In various books, forklifts are also called Forklift Truck and Lift truck.

In 1906, the Pennsylvania Railroad used battery-operated platforms mounted on trucks to move cargo at train stations. During the First World War, considerable progress was made in the movement of military equipment. Due to the war and as a result of the severe reduction of manpower, the need to manufacture and produce various types of equipment for moving cargo and materials became more apparent. In 1917, the American company CLARK designed, manufactured, and used forklift-like tractors in its factories, and in 1920 the first forklifts were built and introduced to the market by YALE and TOW MOTOR.

Between 1930 and 1920, the continuous development and improvement in the construction and use of forklifts accelerated and reached its peak with the outbreak of World War II. During the war, more efficient methods for storing materials and loads by forklifts were invented.

Larger and newer warehouses needed forklifts that were more maneuverable and able to move heavier and larger loads at higher altitudes and with greater safety in the shortest possible time. Therefore, the forklift manufacturing industry was changed in those years to meet the new needs of the market.

From the middle of the nineteenth century until today, many advances have been made in the forklift industry and modern forklifts have been designed and built with many capabilities. Today, large forklift companies are researching to build forklifts not only with many capabilities but also are more suitable in terms of safety and environmentally friendly.

Todays, forklifts in various types and capacities are made with solid tires and pneumatic tires for various applications in industries such as ports and shipbuilding, metal industry, construction industry, manufacturing workshops, warehouses, etc.

The first Toyota forklift sold in the United States

This machine has a rig, prongs, and attachments that are designed and manufactured according to their type of activity in cargo storage, transportation, and handling.

The main application of forklift:

The use of this device in places with more construction has a special application because this device can easily lift building materials and equipment and move it anywhere.

Forklifts in warehouses can move equipment easily and on a large scale.

The forks of this device can rise above the forklift itself and place the equipment at the highest level of other vehicles, and therefore they can easily use this device to load trucks.

Types of forklifts according to the type of engine:

One of the most important parts of a forklift is the forklift engine, which provides the power and torque needed to operate the forklift.

Today, forklifts use different types of fuel to start the engine. Diesel, petrol, gas, gasoline, and electric power are the most important ones. The fuel of this car depends on the place where it is used, which is usually electric, fossil, or gas.

Diesel forklift

Diesel forklifts are ideal for outdoor use because the exhaust fumes and diesel particles are dispersed outdoors and do not address environmental, health, and safety issues.

However, catalysts and exhaust purifiers can reduce harmful gas emissions and make forklifts usable for indoor use.

Diesel engines are more efficient than LPG engines. The 50-liter fuel tank of a diesel forklift is more efficient than the 18 kg gas cylinder of a gas forklift.

Higher torque is another advantage of diesel forklifts over gas burners, which makes it more powerful on slopes and heavy work.

There are different types of this type of forklift in tonnages of 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 tons, etc.



They are noisy and the exhaust fumes can be harmful to some people with certain diseases. It may also trigger smoke alarms when used indoors.

Their large size means that they need more space to work, but this usually does not pose a problem when used outdoors.

Their initial cost is less than an electric forklift but is usually slightly more expensive than a dual-burner. Their maintenance cost is higher than an electric forklift but less than a dual-fuel forklift.

Dual-fuel forklift (LPG and gasoline)

LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) forklifts are very popular due to their competitive pricing and suitability for use in open and closed environments and ease of operation.

The engines of these forklifts are a derivative of the same dual-burner engine used in cars, so the parts are easily available at reasonable prices.

LPG forklifts are quieter than diesel and their exhaust vapors are much less polluting than diesel forklifts.

Exhaust catalysts perform better at high temperatures than diesel forklifts.

The displacement speed, acceleration, and high lift speed of the dual-burner forklift are more applicable in the industry.


While they are cheaper than other models, they also have higher maintenance and fuel costs.

Like diesel forklifts, antifreeze should be used for winter service.

Electric forklifts

Electric forklifts are completely environmentally friendly. They do not have smoke and harmful pollutants. Moreover, they are completely silent. Due to the lower weight of the battery, which itself acts as the balance weight, they are smaller in size and move much easier.

The cost of charging the battery at low tariffs is less than the cost of gas or diesel fuel.

Electric forklifts are generally simpler to operate than diesel and gas engine forklifts because they have only one accelerator pedal and one brake pedal and do not have automatic or manual gears.

The maintenance costs of electric forklifts are significantly lower than those of diesel and gas forklifts.

Stacker, counterbalance, reload truck are all types of electric forklifts.


The higher initial cost is a major demerit due to its expensive batteries and chargers. It is also not possible to use them while charging unless an extra battery is provided, which adds to the cost.

Electric forklifts need a smooth surface to operate. Excessive use of sloping surfaces quickly reduces battery charge, but with a stronger battery, this cannot be considered a problem.

The operation of electric forklifts in humid areas is still an issue because the humid climate causes problems with wiring and electrical components.

Forklift roll holder

Roll holder is one of the forklift extensions which, as its name suggests, is designed to have two large arms to hold

Moving tubular objects such as paper rolls, wood, pipes can be used in various industries.

These forklift rollers can rotate 360 ​​°.

Forklift baler

A baler is an attachment to a forklift that can move loads that are in the form of a baler.

Paper textiles, recycled materials, factory raw materials, hemp and cotton industries, pulp, etc. are some of this type, which is used for moving them.

Forklift side shift

Side Shift is an extension that can be used to move the load transversely, i.e. left and right, during loading or palm loading.

Side shifts can help save time for forklift tasks.

Forklift blocker

Block Clamps is one of the extensions that can be installed on forklifts and this device is used to lift blocks.

This is how the blocker works: it locks next to the desired product and holds it with pressure.

These extensions are mostly used in construction, ceramic tile industry, and the like.

What is a crane?

A crane is a machine used to move objects from one place to another, such as lifting, lowering, and moving horizontally. The word crane was given to these machines because of the similarity of the appearance of such machines with a type of long-necked fish-eating birds. The first building cranes were invented by the ancient Greeks and were driven by humans or load-bearing animals such as donkeys and horses. This type of cargo was used to build tall buildings; this type of cargo developed over time. In the middle ages, port cranes became popular for loading and unloading ships, and with their structure, they helped to transport goods. Construction cranes were first made of wood and later of stone.

The first type of industrial crane was used in ancient Egypt about 4,000 years ago to move water from wells. They are made of wood and are known as Shaduf. This type of early machine consisted of horizontal support with two vertical supports and a rotating arm. For balance, on one side was the balance weight and on the other side was the swivel arm, which moved water or goods.

In the 16th century, the Jib was added to the Boom, the main arm, to increase the load length of the crane. The following figure shows Boom and Jib.

These advances continued, and in the nineteenth century, internal combustion engines and electric motors were used to increase the lifting capacity of cranes in their structures. Their bodies were also converted from wood to steel and their strength increased significantly.

Today, all types of cranes are produced and marketed. Various materials are used in the construction of cranes; the most important material used in the construction of cranes is steel. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon to which elements such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, and titanium are added to increase its strength. In addition to the above materials, other materials such as synthetic plastic are used to make tires, copper in electrical construction and wiring, semiconductor elements such as germanium and silicon are used in the electrical circuits of the device.

Types of cranes:

Chain overhead cranes (Suspension cranes)Suspension overhead crane is the best choice when you have limited space in terms of bridge and winch installation on the roof of the hall and at the same time need the maximum height of the lift. In this type of crane, the longitudinal guides are placed as a pendant on the lower wing of the carrier beam and the bridge or bridges are connected to the guides.

Suspension overhead cranes

  • Overhead cranes
  • Single bridge
  • Two bridges

Overhead cranes:

Overhead cranes are used for vertical and horizontal load transfer in warehouses and industrial halls. These cranes usually have two parallel rails that move horizontally (limited in six directions) along the crane hall.

Single bridge:

This type of crane is considered due to its lower construction cost, less occupied space, and less pressure on the hall rails and is widely used in the industry.


This type of crane is the best option for halls that have a suitable space. Duplex overhead cranes have a high height for vertical displacement. Another advantage of this type of cranes is the presence of an optional corridor in the crane body, which in addition to easy access and the possibility of repairing trolley parts (trolley), also provides a suitable possibility for repairing and replacing hall lamps, hall heating facilities, and power lines.

Gantry cranes:

  • Single bridge
  • Double bridge

Gantry cranes are used to move loads outdoors and indoors. Gantry cranes have the ability to install single and double bridge tow ropes in different working groups.

Advantages of gantry cranes:

Gantry cranes are crane structures that have one or more hoists. They are also the best solution for moving materials outdoors such as crushers, ports, metal warehouses, and the best way for unloading cargo on trucks and ships, especially unloading and loading containers.

Semi-Gantry cranes:

  • Single bridge
  • Double bridge

Semi-Gantry Cranes are mainly installed in outdoor areas that are special for unloading and loading cargoes. Semi-gantry cranes are structurally similar to overhead cranes with the only difference; they have two columns connected to a bridge and a head that travel along with them along the path. These types of cranes are in types: two bridges, single bridges, console and without the console, and etc.

By placing railings on both sides of the longitudinal path, gantry cranes can be installed and operated quickly. Therefore, one of their advantages is the possibility of moving and relocating from the current installation site to another location for use.

Arm gantry crane:

A cost-effective Jip crane or column crane integrates several displacement systems; sometimes using these types of cranes will be the best economic solution for you; you can also use these cranes in roofless spaces such as courtyards, on walls, sloping surfaces, or in buildings where other material handling equipment cannot be used.

The most common use of arm cranes is in workstations in factories. Machining, welding, packing, and assembly stations are examples of this, and arm cranes are used in areas that require light and simple load lifting and lowering.

The use of an arm crane is not recommended if you need a wide range of hooks or you often want to lift loads close to the maximum allowable.

The articulated type of arm crane is designed for better access to the corners.

Portal gantry crane:

This type of crane is very similar to the semi-gantry type, except that it has the ability to rotate. This type of crane is widely used in ports and customs.

Truck cranes:

These types of cranes are widely utilized in buildings and the transport of goods, especially within cities. They have the advantage of fast and unconditional handling and have different load handling capabilities.

Self-propelled cranes:

These types of cranes are very similar to truck cranes; with the difference that they have a lower carrying capacity. These cranes are mostly applied for moving and carrying vehicles and light loads. The advantage of this type of cranes is the speed of work, ease of working with the device, low required space, and fast movement of the machine.

Chain wheel cranes:

In some cranes, due to the type of heavy operations they perform in the load or the working situation, it is not possible to utilize rubber, so more chains are used to distribute the pressure on the surface. One of the advantages of this type of cranes is the ability to move in the uneven ground, but the disadvantage of these devices is the possibility of less maneuverability and low speed in movement.

This device is mainly used in refineries, petrochemical plants and other large industrial projects. Their applications start from excavation and biomechanics in light types and continue to be used in refineries, power plants, bridges in heavy types.

These types of cranes are divided into two categories according to the type of operation:

Light chain cranes

Lift cranes:

Lift cranes have a lifting capacity (carrying) between 100 and 1200 tons. An important feature of cranes with low tonnage, low weight, the possibility of easier movement, high speed in installation, and in larger tonnages is the increase of lifting height up to 226 meters and access radius up to 165 meters.

Tower Cranes (Tower Cranes):

Tower crane is one of the most important human achievements that have different structures according to the type of user expectation and is implemented in the fields of tower construction, dam construction, silo construction, bridge construction, etc., which can be at different heights with different loads in different radius. It serves a variety of services, and according to the fact that it has very high maneuverability in the field of loading for various uses, it has attracted the attention of a large group of craftsmen, including in the field of tower construction.

Wall crane:

A wall-mounted mobile crane is a type of crane that is used in terms of optimal use of the sides of the hall. The capacity of this crane is from 125 kg to 10 tons and its arm-length is 2 to 77 meters and it is designed as a single bridge and a pair of bridges. In wide halls, these types of cranes are the best option to equip a part of the width of the hall due to the removal of one side column independently or auxiliary and are more economical.

What is tower crane and how does it work?

Tower cranes are a modern form of balance levers made up of the same main components. The tower crane base (stabilization base) is usually placed in reinforced concrete and sometimes, it is secured to parts of the structure or building by the belt. Tower cranes generally provide the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are widely used in the construction of dams, towers, and high-rise buildings. During the initial installation of the tower crane, its fixing base must be carried out in accordance with the required technical specifications specified in the manual of that particular tower crane, under the supervision and approval of the building engineer. As it is impossible to access to this section and detailed inspection of the specifications during operation, the approval of the supervising engineer in this area will be required.

How did the tower crane come into being?

There has always been a problem with the construction of huge structures, especially when the work reaches great heights above ground level. Most of the time, a lot of effort and cost must be used to make materials and equipment with high weight and volume can be used in the structure. This problem was largely solved about 70 years ago with the construction of the first tower cranes. The first tower crane was invented by the ancient Greeks and worked with labor and livestock. This tower crane was used to build tall buildings with allowing heavy objects to be carried to the top of the building.

Tower cranes are an essential component of any construction site. The height increase piece, which usually has a different height from other parts of the derrick, is attached to this base, and then the sections are mounted on it and connected by standard pins and spikes or bolts. The derrick tower crane is then connected to the rotating part, which includes the motor and gears, to allow the tower crane to rotate.

At the top of the turntable of the tower crane, there are three main parts: the lift pocket or the working arm or the arrow on which the carriage and the hook move. Shorter pockets with balance weights and usually tower crane inspection corridors, main switchboard, and main gearbox motor are also located in this part. And the tower crane operator’s cabin in which the controllers and levers are located here and the tower crane operation is done from there.

The tower crane’s longer arm, the flash, is the part of the crane that is responsible for loading. And the short arm accommodates the balancing weights, which are usually made of concrete, and the arrangement of these blocks varies according to the working height of the crane, the length of the flash, and the user capacity, which is stated in the booklet of the same special type of tower crane. The tower crane operator can control it from inside the cabin or in some models, it can perform loading operations from any point through the remote control. In most cases, the operator’s cabin is located above the revolving part, but in some models, the cab is also placed on the flash or the lower part of the tower crane. Fastening the load and connecting the hook to the load is usually done by a person called a derrick or towing wire. In many cases where the tower crane operator does not have a good view of the load or when loading is done at the operator’s blind spot, the presence of a trained rigger and adhering to safety principles is crucial. Many tower crane accidents are not due to a technical defect in the tower crane, but due to a rigger failure to close the load properly or a lack of proper communication during hazards such as part of the load getting stuck to the rods or part of the structure under construction and sudden suspicion of the flash. Communication between the rigger and the tower crane operator is often done wirelessly, but both should be familiar with the standard and conventional rigging signals in order to utilize them in the event of a radio disconnection or excessive ambient noise.

How does tower crane work?

There are different types of tower cranes, almost all of which follow the same rule in the work and loading process, which includes several categories.

1- Load power:

The loading power of the tower is based on their structure, how much tonnage it can lift from the ground, which is done by the electric motor, and the electric motor is connected to the gearbox and from the gearbox to the drum or the winch, and the required amount of the tow wire and a connector called hook is connected to the load to the required height of the device. It should be noted that after the driver and the steering wheel, the above system is controlled by a series of micro-switches because the device does not lift the excess load (tonnage) off the ground and the safety of the device is maintained. All these steps are assigned to the loading capacity or tonnage of the device.

2- Load maneuvering power forward and backward (chariot):

After lifting the load from the ground, the tower cranes have the maneuver of moving the load forward, i.e. away from the device (chariot forward), and moving the load backward, i.e. towards the device itself (chariot back). Of course, it should be noted that the load that exceeds the allowable tonnage of the device is controlled by the micro switches of the breaker and prevents it from moving forward.

3- Rotational maneuvering power (rotatable):

In addition to having the power to lift the load and move it back and forth, tower cranes have a power that can move the load in a radius of 360 degrees and transfer the load to any desired point. This is usually done by 1 or 2 electric motors and 1 or 2 gearboxes, which for its safety also have built-in micro switches to prevent unnecessary bypassing.

4- Overall motion power of the device:

Tower cranes have the ability to move on the ground and transfer the whole device from one point to another. There are different in crawling on the ground; some of them are moved by being on the rails and some of the others are on chains that they are similar to tank chains and move on the ground, and other types move on big wheels that look like plane tires. All the movement of these devices is usually done by electric motors and very powerful gearboxes that have very strong brakes.

5- Height gain or height increase power:

The question for the public is always how tower cranes reach high points and how they increase in height.